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Tài liệu giáo án bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi tiếng anh 9
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giáo án bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi tiếng anh 9

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Đề ôn thi học sinh giỏi tiếng Anh lớp 9 tham khảo. Tài liệu gồm 2 đề tổng hợp kiến thức cho kỳ thi chọn học sinh giỏi, bổ sung kiến thức trắc nghiệm tiếng anh của các bạn thí sinh, giúp các bạn thí sinh nắm vững ngữ pháp tiếng anh, phản xạ nhanh với các bài thi trắc nghiệm.

Nội dung
Present Continuous

Verb forms

English tenses

Present Continuous * Examples

He is sleeping. I am visiting grandpa in the afternoon. You are always coming late for the meetings!

The Present Continuous is mainly used to express the idea that something is happening at the moment of speaking. The Present Continuous also describes activities generally in progress (this means that they don't have to take place right now). Another use of the tense is to talk about temporary actions or future plans. * USES

• Present actions • Temporary actions • Longer actions in progress • Future (personal) arrangements and plans • Tendencies and trends (xu h ng, khuynh h ng và chi u h ng)ướ ướ ề ướ • Irritation (sự chọc tức; tình trạng bị làm phát cáu, tình trạng bị chọc tức­ phàn nàn)

USE 1: Present Actions Most often, we use the Present Continuous tense to talk about actions happening at the moment of speaking. Examples:

He is eating a dinner. Mary is talking with her friends. They are swimming in the pool.

Stative (State) Verbs There is a certain group of verbs that usually does not appear in the Continuous form. They are called Stative (State) Verbs, and if used in the Continuous form, they have a different meaning. Examples:

I think you look pretty today! meaning: Opinion I'm thinking of moving to San Francisco! meaning: Act of thinking

USE 2: Temporary Actions This tense is also used for activities continuing only for a limited period of time. Examples:

- I'm riding a bike to get to work because my car is broken. Temporary Action (His car will soon be repaired)

- They are not talking with each other after the last argument. Temporary Action (They will soon make up)

- Mary is working at McDonald's. Temporary Action (She is working there only during the summer holidays) USE 3: Longer Actions in Progress We also use the Present Continuous when we are in the middle of doing something time-consuming (i.e. something that takes time to complete). An example of such an activity is writing a book, saving money or studying for an exam. Examples:

Lê Th Thanh Huy nị ề

-They are working hard to earn money. -I am training to become a professional footballer. -Mike is studying hard to become a doctor. -Elizabeth is currently writing a children's book titled I am the World.

USE 4: Future (Personal) Arrangements and Plans Sometimes we use the Present Continuous to show that something is planned and will be done in the near future. Examples:

-I'm meeting Katie in the evening. -He's flying to Rome in September. -We're not going anywhere tomorrow.

USE 5: Tendencies and Trends This tense is also used for expressing tendencies or trends. Examples:

-Our country is getting richer. -The Internet is becoming less of a novelty. -The Universe is expanding .

USE 6: Irritation or Anger And the last use of this tense is to express irritation or anger over somebody or something in the present with adverbs such as: always, continually or contantly. Examples:

-She is continually complaining about everything! -Johny is always asking stupid questions! -My boss is contantly critising me!

Present Simple * Examples

-John lives in New York. -We play football every day. -You are really kind. -The meeting starts at 3 PM

The Present Simple is the most basic and common tense in the English language. Because of its easy form, it is the best tense to start learning/teaching English tenses. It is also an interesting tense because it can express both the present and the future. In the below list, there are 7 uses of this tense. It's a lot, but don't worry: most of them are easy to understand. *USE

• Facts, generalizations and universal truths (t ng quát, khái quát)ổ • Habits and routines • Permanent situations • Events that are certain to happen • Arrangements that we can't change (e.g. timetables, official meetings) • State verbs (e.g. be, have, suppose, know) • Narrations (e.g. telling a joke), instructions or commentaries

*Note Apart from the above uses, this tense is also used in:

Zero Conditional — If it rains, I go play football. First Conditional — We won't get our pocket money, if we don't pass this exam.

Lê Th Thanh Huy nị ề

In sentences after when, before, till, after, as soon as. ("Before you leave, please take the keys") USE 1: Facts, Generalizations and Univeral Truths We use the Present Simple to talk about universal truths (for example, laws of nature) or things we believe are, or are not, true. It's also use it to generalize about something or somebody. Examples:

-Water boils at 100 degrees Celcius. Universal Truths -It is a big house. Facts -The Earth goes around the Sun. Universal Truths, Facts -Dogs are better than cats. Generalization -Berlin is the capital city of Germany. Facts -The Elephant doesn't fly. Facts -London is the capital city of France. Facts (REMEMBER: the sentence does not have to be

true) USE 2: Habits and Routines We also used this tense to describe actions that happen frequently. For example: habits, routines, tendencies. Examples:

-We leave for work at 7:30 AM every morning. Routine -My husband watches the TV in the evening. Habit, Routine -Susan often meets with her friends after school. Habit, Routine -They usually play football on Sunday. Habit, Routine -Mark rarely visits his sick grandmother. Tendency -Pinocchio usually told lies. Tendency

Adverbs of Frequency The Present Simple is often used with the frequency adverbs: always frequently/often usually seldom/rarely nowadays never every week/year sometimes/occasionally from time to time every now and then A few examples how to use them in sentences:

-I always go to church on Sundays. -I never eat anything after 10 PM.

USE 3: Pernament Situations Use the Present Simple to talk about situations in life that last a relatively long time. Examples:

-I live in Boston -He works as a fireman. -Margaret drives a Volkswagen. -Jerry doesn't teach maths at highschool.

USE 4: Events Certain to Happen

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Use the Present Simple when an event is certain to happen in the future. Examples:

-My grandmother turns 100 this July. -Winter starts on 21 December.

USE 5: State Verbs You should use the Present Simple with state verbs. Examples:

-I like swimming. -We know this man.

*Note Some of the verbs used in the simple form can also appear in the continuous form. This is typically when they have an active meaning or emphasize change. Examples:

-I'm thinking of moving to San Francisco -I'm loving your new hairdo!

USE 6: Future Arrangements Use the Present Simple to talk about events that we can't change (for example, an official meeting or a train departure). Examples:

-The meeting starts at 4 PM. -The train leaves at the noon. -When does the plane take off? -Jerry doesn't teach maths at high school.

USE 7: Narrations, Instructions or commentaries The Present Simple is also used in narrations (e.g. to tell a story or a joke), instructions (e.g. cooking) or commentaries (especially sport commentaries). Examples:

A man goes to visit a friend and is amazed to find him playing chess with his dog. He watches the game in astonishment for a while [...] FORM Forming a sentence in the Present Simple is easy. To form a declarative sentence, all you need is the subject of the sentence (e.g. I, you, he, a dog) and the verb (e.g. be, talk, swim). Questions and negative sentences are only a little more difficult, because they require an auxiliary verb.

Simple Present – Present Progressive • Form

Simple Present Present Progressive infinitive (3rd person singular: infinitive + 's') I speak you speak he / she / it speaks we speak they speak

form of 'be' and verb + ing I am speaking you are speaking he / she / it is speaking we are speaking they are speaking

Exceptions Exceptions when adding 's' : For can, may, might, must, do not add s.

Exceptions when adding 'ing' : Silent e is dropped. (but: does not apply for -ee)

Lê Th Thanh Huy nị ề

Example: he can, she may, it must After o, ch, sh or s, add es. Example: do - he does, wash - she washes After a consonant, the final consonant y becomes ie. (but: not after a vowel) Example: worry - he worries but: play - he plays

Example: come - coming but: agree - agreeing After a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled. Example: sit - sitting After a vowel, the final consonant l is doubled in British English (but not in American English). Example: travel - travelling (British English) but: traveling (American English) Final ie becomes y. Example: lie - lying

• Use In general or right now? Do you want to express that something happens in general or that something is happening right now? Simple Present Present Progressive in general (regularly, often, never) Colin plays football every Tuesday. present actions happening one after another First Colin plays football, then he watches TV.

right now Look! Colin is playing football now. also for several actions happening at the same time Colin is playing football and Anne is watching.

Signal words always every ... often normally usually sometimes seldom never first then

at the moment at this moment today now right now Listen! Look!

Note: The following verbs are usually only used in Simple Present: be, have, hear, know, like, love, see, smell, think, want Timetable / Schedule or arrangement? Do you want to express that something is arranged for the near future? Or do you refer to a time set by a timetable or schedule? Simple Present Present Progressive action set by a timetable or schedule The film starts at 8 pm.

arrangement for the near future I am going to the cinema tonight.

Daily routine or just for a limited period of time? Do you want to talk about a daily routine? Or do you want to emphasis that something is only going on for a limited (rather short) period of time? Simple Present Present Progressive

Lê Th Thanh Huy nị ề

daily routine Bob works in a restaurant.

only for a limited period of time (does not have to happen directly at the moment of speaking) Jenny is working in a restaurant this week.

Certain Verbs The following verbs are usually only used in Simple Present (not in the progressive form). state: be, cost, fit, mean, suit Example: We are on holiday. possession: belong, have Example: Sam has a cat. senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touch Example: He feels the cold. feelings: hate, hope, like, love, prefer, regret, want, wish Example: Jane loves pizza. brain work: believe, know, think, understand Example: I believe you. Introductory clauses for direct speech: answer, ask, reply, say Example: “I am watching TV,“ he says.

Present Perfect *Examples

-I have read this book. -The man has gone away. -John has worked as a teacher for over 25 years.

The Present Perfect is used to express actions that happened at an indefinite time or that began in the past and continue in the present. This tense is also used when an activity has an effect on the present moment. *USE

• Actions which happened at an indefinite (unknown) time before now • Actions in the past which have an effect on the present moment • Actions which began in the past and continue in the present

USE 1: Indefinite time before now Use the Present Perfect to talk about actions that happened at some point in the past. It does not matter when exactly they happened. Examples:

-I have already had a breakfast. -He has been to England.

Remember You should not use this tense with time expressions like yesterday, a week ago, last year, etc. USE 2: Effect on the present moment We also use this tense to when an activity has an effect on the present moment. Examples:

-He has finished his work. (so he can now rest) -I have already eaten the dinner. (so I'm not hungry) -He has had a car accident. (that's why he is in the hospital)

USE 3: Continuation in the present We often use the Present Perfect when we want to emphasize that an event continues in the present.

Lê Th Thanh Huy nị ề

Examples: - has worked as a teacher for over 25 years. -Patrick has achieved a lot in his life.

For and Since Since and For are very common time expressions used with the Present Perfect. We use For with a period of time, for example: I have lived here for 20 years. When talking about a starting point, we use Since, for example: I have lived here since 1960. *FORM To form a sentence in the Present Perfect, you need: The proper conjugation of the auxiliary verb "to have". The Past Participle of your verb. 1. Auxiliary Verb "to have" We conjugate the auxiliary verb "to have" the same way we would conjugate the normal verb "to have".

Person Singular Plural

First I have We have

Second You have You have

Third He/she/it has They have As you can see, the third person singular is irregular.

More examples: She has never seen my brother. Neither of my brothers has ever driven a truck.

2. The Past Participle The past participle of a verb is a verb form that appears with the perfect tenses. The past participle can be either regular or irregular. The regular verbs are formed by adding -ed to the verb:

Verb Past Participle

talk talked

explain explained

use used

deliver delivered

include included

achieve achieved

The formation of the irregular verbs does not follow one rule. Therefore, they should be memorized.

Lê Th Thanh Huy nị ề

Verb Past Participle Learn more

be been be

become become become

see seen see

go gone go

eat eaten eat

grow grown grow

Declarative Sentences Subject

+ Auxiliary verb

+ Past participle

e.g. I/a dogetc. has/have e.g. slept/taken/goneetc.

Examples Use

We have already had breakfast (Use 1)

I have bought new shades (Use 2)

I have already been to Paris (Use 1)

John has been a plumber for 2 years (Use 3)

Someone has just taken my bag! (Use 1,2)

Jane has never been so angry (Use 3)

He has been our most serious partner for so long that I can assure you he's a very decent man

(Use 3)

Questions Auxiliary verb

+ Subject

+ Past participle

has/have e.g. I/a dogetc. e.g. slept/taken/goneetc.

Examples Use

Have you ever seen this program? (Use 1)

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Where has she lived for the past 21 years? (Use 3)

Have you found the telephone number? (Use 1,2)

Have you ever been to France? (Use 1)

Has anyone taken my bag? (Use 1,2)

Present perfect continuous

Form of Present Perfect Progressive Positive Negative Question I / you / we / they I have been speaking. I have not been speaking. Have I been speaking? he / she / it He has been speaking. He has not been speaking. Has he been speaking? Exceptions in Spelling Exceptions in spelling when adding ing Example final e is dropped (but: ee is not changed)

come – coming (but: agree – agreeing)

after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled sit – sitting l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled (in British English) travel – travelling final ie becomes y lie – lying Use of Present Perfect Progressive

• puts emphasis on the duration or course of an action (not the result) Example: She has been writing for two hours.

• action that recently stopped or is still going on Example: I have been living here since 2001.

• finished action that influenced the present Example: I have been working all afternoon. Signal Words of Present Perfect Progressive all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week

Present Perfect Simple – Present Perfect Progressive *Form Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive irregular verbs: form of 'have' + 3rd column of irregular verbs Example: I / you / we / they have spoken he / she / it has spoken regular verbs: form of 'have' + infinitive + ed Example: I / you / we / they have worked he / she / it has worked

form of 'have' + been + verb + ing Example: I / you / we / they have been speaking he / she / it has been speaking

Exceptions Exceptions when adding 'ed' : Exceptions when adding 'ing' :

Lê Th Thanh Huy nị ề

when the final letter is e, only add d Example: love - loved after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled Example: admit - admitted final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English) Example: travel - travelled after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel) Example: worry - worried but: play - played

silent e is dropped. (but: does not apply for -ee) Example: come - coming aber: agree - agreeing after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled Example: sit - sitting after a vowel, the final consonant l is doubled in British English (but not in American English). Example: travel - travelling final ie becomes y. Example: lie - lying

*Use Both tenses are used to express that an action began in the past and is still going on or has just finished. In many cases, both forms are correct, but there is often a difference in meaning: We use the Present Perfect Simple mainly to express that an action is completed or to emphasise the result. We use the Present Perfect Progressive to emphasise the duration or continuous course of an action.

• Result or duration? Do you want to express what has happened so far or how long an action has been going on yet? Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive Result (what / how much / how often) I have written 5 letters. / I have been to London twice.

Duration (how long) I have been writing for an hour.

• Certain verbs The following verbs are usually only used in Present Perfect Simple (not in the progressive form). state: be, have (for possession only) Example: We have been on holiday for two weeks. senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touch Example: He has touched the painting. brain work: believe, know, think, understand Example: I have known him for 3 years.

• Emphasis on completion or duration? Do you want to emphasise the completion of an action or its continuous course (how has somebody spent his time)? Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive Emphasis on completion I have done my homework. (Meaning: My homework is completed now.)

Emphasis on duration I have been doing my homework. (Meaning: That's how I have spent my time. It does not matter whether the homework is completed now.)

• Result or side effect?

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Do you want to express that a completed action led to a desired result or that the action had an unwanted side effect? Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive desired result I have washed the car. (Result: The car is clean now.)

unwanted side effect Why are you so wet? - I have been washing the car. (side effect: I became wet when I was washing the car. It does not matter whether the car is clean now.)

• Time + negation: last time or beginning of an action? In negative sentences: Do you want to express how much time has past since the last time the action took place or since the beginning of the action? Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive since the last time I haven't played that game for years. (Meaning: It's years ago that I last played that game.)

since the beginning I haven't been playing that game for an hour, only for 10 minutes. (Meaning: It's not even an hour ago that I started to play that game.)

• Permanent or temporary? If an action is still going on and we want to express that it is a permanent situation, we would usually use the Present Perfect Simple. For temporary situations, we would prefer the Present Perfect Progressive. This is not a rule, however, only a tendency. Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive permanent James has lived in this town for 10 years. (Meaning: He is a permanent resident of this town.)

temporary James has been living here for a year. (Meaning: This situation is only temporary. Maybe he is an exchange student and only here for one or two years.)

Signal words Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive how often ... times

how long since for

Simple Past (Past Simple) The simple past expresses an action in the past taking place once, never, several times. It can also be used for actions taking place one after another or in the middle of another action. Form of Simple Past Positive Negative Question no differences I spoke. I did not speak. Did I speak? For irregular verbs, use the past form (see list of irregular verbs, 2nd column). For regular verbs, just add “ed”. Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ‘ed’ Exceptions in spelling when adding ed Example after a final e only add d love – loved

Lê Th Thanh Huy nị ề

final consonant after a short, stressed vowel or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled

admit – admitted travel – travelled

final y after a consonant becomes i hurry – hurried Use of Simple Past

• action in the past taking place once, never or several times Example: He visited his parents every weekend.

• actions in the past taking place one after the other Example: He came in, took off his coat and sat down.

• action in the past taking place in the middle of another action Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang.

• if sentences type II (If I talked, …) Example: If I had a lot of money, I would share it with you.

Signal Words of Simple Past yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday If-Satz Typ II (If I talked, …)

Past Progressive (Past Continuous) The past progressive puts emphasis on the course of an action in the past. Form Positive Negative Question I / he / she / it I was speaking. I was not speaking. Was I speaking? you / we / they You were speaking. You were not speaking. Were you speaking?

Exceptions in Spelling Exceptions in spelling when adding ing Example final e is dropped (but: ee is not changed) come – coming

(but: agree – agreeing) after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled sit – sitting l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled (in British English) travel – travelling final ie becomes y lie – lying

Use of Past Progressive • puts emphasis on the course of an action in the past

Example: He was playing football. • two actions happening at the same time (in the past)

Example: While she was preparing dinner, he was washing the dishes. • action going on at a certain time in the past

Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang. Signal Words of Past Progressive when, while, as long as

Lê Th Thanh Huy nị ề

Simple Past – Past Progressive • Form

Simple Past Past Progressive irregular verbs: see 2nd column of irregular verbs I spoke regular verbs: verb + ed I worked

past form of 'be' + ing form of verb I was speaking you were speaking he / she / it was speaking we were speaking they were speaking

Exceptions Exceptions when adding 'ed' : when the final letter is e, only add d. Example: love - loved after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled Example: admit - admitted final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English) Example: travel - travelled after a consonant, final y becomes i. (but: not after a vowel) Example: worry - he worried but: play - he played

Exceptions when adding 'ing' : silent e is dropped (but: does not apply for -ee) Example: come - coming but: agree - agreeing after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled Example: sit - sitting final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English) Example: travel - travelling final ie becomes y. Example: lie - lying

• Use 1. After another or at the same time?

Do you want to express that the actions in the past happened one after another or at the same time? Simple Past Past Progressive after another She came home, switched on the computer and checked her e-mails.

at the same time Simon was playing on the computer while his brother was watching TV.

2. New action or already in progress? If you want to express that a new action happened in the middle of another action, you need both tenses: Simple Past the new action and Past Progressive for the action already in progress. Simple Past Past Progressive new action My mobile rang (when I was sitting in a meeting.)

action already in progress While I was sitting in a meeting, (my mobile suddenly rang.)

3. Only mentioning or emphasising progress? Do you just want to mention that an action took place in the past (also used for short actions)? Or do you want to put emphasis on the progress, e.g. that an action was taking place at a certain time? Simple Past Past Progressive just mentioning Colin played football yesterday.

emphasising progress Yesterday at six o'clock, Colin was playing football.

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4. Certain Verbs The following verbs are usually only used in Simple Past (not in the progressive form). state: be, cost, fit, mean, suit Example: We were on holiday. possession: belong, have Example: Sam had a cat. senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touch Example: He felt the cold. feelings: hate, hope, like, love, prefer, regret, want, wish Example: Jane loved pizza. brain work: believe, know, think, understand Example: I did not understand him. introductory clauses for direct speech: answer, ask, reply, say Example: “I am watching TV,“ he said.

• Signal words Simple Past Past Progressive first then If-Satz Typ II (If I talked, …)

when while as long as

Simple Past – Present Perfect Simple 1. Form Simple Past Present Perfect Simple irregular verbs: see 2nd column of irregular verbs Example: I spoke

irregular verbs: form of 'have' + 3rd column of irregular verbs Example: I / you / we / they have spoken he / she / it has spoken

regular verbs: infinitive + ed Example: I worked

regular verbs: form of 'have' + infinitive + ed Example: I / you / we / they have worked he / she / it has worked

Exceptions Exceptions when adding 'ed': when the final letter is e, only add d Example: love - loved after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled Example: admit - admitted final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English) Example: travel - travelled after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel)

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Example: worry - worried but: play - played 2. Use In British English, the use of Simple Past and Present Perfect is quite strict. As soon as a time expression in the past is given, you have to use Simple Past. If there are no signal words, you must decide if we just talk about an action in the past or if its consequence in the present is important. Note that the following explanations and exercises refer to British English only. In American English, you can normally use Simple Past instead of Present Perfect. We cannot accept this in our exercises, however, as this would lead to confusions amongst those who have to learn the differences.

• Certain time in the past or just / already / yet? Do you want to express that an action happened at a certain time in the past (even if it was just a few seconds ago) or that an action has just / already / not yet happened? Simple Past Present Perfect Simple certain time in the past Example: I phoned Mary 2 minutes ago.

just / already / not yet Example: I have just phoned Mary.

• Certain event in the past or how often so far? Do you want to express when a certain action took place or whether / how often an action has happened till now? Simple Past Present Perfect Simple certain event in the past Example: He went to Canada last summer.

whether / how often till now Example: Have you ever been to Canada? / I have been to Canada twice.

• Emphasis on action or result? Do you just want to express what happened in the past? Or do you want to emphasise the result (a past action's consequence in the present)? Simple Past Present Perfect Simple Emphasis on action Example: I bought a new bike. (just telling what I did in the past.)

Emphasis on result Example: I have bought a new bike. (With this sentence I actually want to express that I have a new bike now.)

3. Signal Words Simple Past Present Perfect Simple yesterday ... ago in 1990 the other day last ...

just already up to now until now / till now ever (not) yet so far lately / recently

Lê Th Thanh Huy nị ề

Past Perfect Simple

The past perfect simple expresses an action taking place before a certain time in the past.

1. Form of Past Perfect Simple

Positive Negative Question

no differences I had spoken. I had not spoken. Had I spoken?

For irregular verbs, use the past participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add ed.

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed Example

after final e, only add d love – loved

final consonant after a short, stressed vowel or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled

admit – admitted travel – travelled

final y after a consonant becomes i hurry – hurried

2. Use of Past Perfect  action taking place before a certain time in the past

(putting emphasis only on the fact, not the duration) Example: Before I came here, I had spoken to Jack.

 Conditional Sentences Type III (condition that was not given in the past) Example: If I had seen him, I would have talked to him.

3. Signal Words  already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day (with reference to the past, not the present)  If-Satz Typ III (If I had talked, …)

Lê Th Thanh Huy nị ề

Simple Past – Past Perfect Simple

1.Form

Simple Past Past Perfect Simple

2nd column of irregular verbs Example:

I spoke

had + 3rd column of irregular verbs Example:

I had spoken

regular verbs: infinitive + ed Example:

I worked

regular verbs: form of have + infinitive + ed Example:

I had worked

Exceptions

Exceptions when adding ed:  when the final letter is e, only add d

Example: love - loved

 after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled Example:

admit - admitted  final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English)

Example: travel - travelled

 after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel) Example:

worry - worried but: play - played

2. Use

We use Simple Past if we give past events in the order in which they occured. However, when we look back from a certain time in the past to tell what had happened before, we use Past Perfect.

Normal order in the past or looking back to an event before a certain time in the past?

Do you just want to tell what happened some time in the past or do you want to tell what had happened before/up to a certain time in the past?

Simple Past Past Perfect Simple

some time in the past before/up to a certain time in the past

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Example: Jane got up at seven. She opened her birthday presents and then the whole family went to the zoo.

Example: Before her sixth birthday, Jane had never been to the zoo.

3. Signal Words

Simple Past Past Perfect Simple

first then

already up to then before that day after*

*Note: "After" is only used as a signal word for Past Perfect if it is followed by a subject + verb, meaning that one action had been completed before another action began (the new action is in Simple Past).

Example: After the family had had breakfast, they went to the zoo.

However, if "after" is followed by object + subject + verb, the verb belongs to the new action and is therefore in Simple Past.

Example: After her visit to the zoo, Jane was exhausted.

More exceptions with signal words When

Depending on the situation, "when" can be used with Simple Past or Past Perfect. Compare the following examples:

Example: When Jane saw the elephants, she was amazed. (at the same time) When Jane had seen the elephants, she wanted to see the giraffes. (second action happened after the first action had been completed) When Jane went to see the elephants, she had already seen the lions. (second action had been completed when the first action took place)

Before

"Before" as well can either be used with Simple Past or Past Perfect. If the action after "before" is a new action, use Simple Past. If the action after "before" started (and was not completed) before a certain time in the past, use Past Perfect. Compare the following examples:

Example: Jane had read a lot about elephants before she went to the zoo. Jane went to the zoo before she had finished reading her new book about elephants.

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FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE

English does not have a verb form specifically used to express future tense. We have to choose from a variety of forms (using 'will'/'shall', 'going to', the present continuous, the present simple, etc.) to talk about future events. The future expressed with the modal auxiliaries will and shall + the base form of the verb is known as the future simple tense or 'will' future. Keep in mind, however, that 'will' doesn't always serve to indicate the future. We can use 'will' to talk about events happening at the present. (For example: This car won't start.)

Structure Examples We use the Future Simple Tense:

The future simple tense is composed of two parts: will/shall + base verb. Will and shall are often contracted to 'll.

Affirmative form

I + shall / will + work we

you he/she/it + will + work they

1. I shall/will write her tomorrow. 2. We shall/will go shopping together during the holidays.

Note: 'Will' is used with all persons. 'Shall' can be used instead of 'will' with I/we. In modern English, particularly in American English, 'shall' with a future reference is rarely used.

1. I will finish my report later today. 2. The sun will rise at 6:03 am. 3. I'll go to the market tomorrow. 4. There will be another conference next month. 5. I'll come to see you on Sunday. 6. We'll be back on Friday afternoon. 7. Tom will visit his parents next week. 8. They will paint the fence blue. 9. I will return in two hours. 10. He will finish his homework in twenty minutes. 11. Jane will turn 18 this year. 12. The wedding will take place on May 8th. The ceremony will begin at 4pm, followed by a meal and a big party.

to say that something will happen in the future. Adverbs of time that will indicate such tense may include, tomorrow, today, later today, in five minutes, in two hours, on Monday, on Saturday afternoon, next week/month, this year, etc.

! Note that when we talk about prior plans, strong intentions or fixed arrangements we do not normally use 'will':

I am going to meet him this afternoon. ('to be' + 'going to' + main form of the verb) I'm going to buy a new car this year. ('to be' + 'going to' + main form of the verb) I am going to a party tommorrow night. (the present continuous) Tina is getting married next month. (the present continuous)

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Negative form

I SHALL + NOT we /SHAN'T/ + WORK

I you WILL + NOT he/she/it /WON'T/ we + WORK they

I won't answer that question. They won't accept this offer.

Interrogative form

To form interrogative sentences we use will with all persons:

WILL I WORK? we

you WILL he/she/it WORK? they

Will you open the window, please? Will you do it for me?

Note: We use shall to make offers, ask for advices or suggestions, etc. (mainly in British English)

1. Shall I close the door? 2. Shall we go to picnic tomorrow? 3. Shall I study English?

'Shall' is also used as an imperative in formal or legal

Note: In certain situations we use 'will' to emphasize:

13. You will drink your milk! 14. I will find a job.

! Note: 'Will' is used instead of 'going to' when a formal style is required, particularly in the written language (See 12)

1. I'll close the window. 2. I'll have a cup of tea, please. 3. - The phone is ringing. - I'll answer it. 4. - Oops, I dropped my pencil. - I'll pick it up.

to express spontaneous decision / to volunteer to do something (the action is decided at the moment of speaking)

1. I think it will rain. 2. The weather tomorrow will be sunny and warm. 3. I think David Brown will be the next mayor of our city. 4. Everything will be fine. 5. You are going to be a famous artist some day. 6. I think you are going to marry a wrong person.

to predict future events (for example, to say what we think or believe will happen), we use both 'will' and 'going to'

! But note that we use 'going to' (not 'will') to make predictions about events when there is a concrete evidence:

Look at those dark clouds in the sky. It is going to rain soon.

1. I'll be there at 7 p.m., I promise. 2. I'll tell your parents what you did.

to make promises or threats

1. Will you please help me to do my homework? 2. That suitcase is too heavy. I’ll help you.

to request help or to offer help

1. I'll probably get there by my car. 2. You must read this book. I'm sure you'll like it. 3. I expect Tom will pass his exam.

with words and expressions such as: probably, possibly, perhaps, (I'm) sure, (I) expect

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written statements:

1. The Chairman shall be present at the Company's general meetings. 2. The accused shall be present during the trial.

1. If it begins to rain, I'll certainly nead an umbrella. 2. She will tell him when he calls.

to talk about consequences (with if, when, provided, unless, as, as soon as, as long as, etc.)

1. I'll be in Athens tomorrow. 2. I'll be at a conference next week.

when the main verb is be even if we talk about planned events

More examples:

1. Will you go shopping? 2. I will not permit that kind of behaviour. 3. Will our theacher come with us? Yes, he will. No, he won't. 4. Our teacher won't come with us.

FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE 1. How to make the Future Continuous Tense?

The Future Continuous is made with the future form of the verb "to be" (I will be, you will be, he/she/it will be, we will be, you will be, they will be) + the '-ing' form of the main verb. The '-ing' form of the verb is called the Present Participle.

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2. Contracted forms:

I will = I'll he/she/it will = he'll/she'll/it'll you will = you'll I will not = I won't he/she/it will not = he won't/she won't/it won't you will not = you won't

we will = we'll they will = they'll we will not = we won't they will not = they won't

Examples:

1. I'll be watching TV. 3. They'll be having a lunch.

2. She won't be swimming at the pool. 4. Will you be waiting for me?

3. Using the Future Continuous Tense.The most common use of the Future Continuous Tense is to describe an activity that will occur in the future and continue for a certain period of time. We can specify the time when the activity is going to take place:

Examples:

Tom will be attending the conference next month.

They'll be shopping at the mall all afternoon.

I'll be working late at the office tonight. We'll be flying over the Atlantic Ocean for three hours. Tonight at 11 p.m, we will be dancing at the party.

- The Future Continuous is also used when we talk about an activity that will continue over a period of time from now into the future (expresses an activity in progress that started at the present moment or at some time around the present moment):

Examples: 1. They'll be studying until 5 o'clock. 2. She'll be playing tennis until she gets tired. 3. Susan will be waiting for the bus 10 more minutes.

- We can use the Future Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future (in this case the shorter action in the future is expressed with Present Simple):

Examples: 1. I'll be making dinner when he arrives tonight. 2. She'll be playing the piano when her parents come home.

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- We can also use the Future Continuous to project ourselves into the future and see something happening:

Examples: 1. You'll recognize me when you get there. I'll be wearing jeans and a white t-shirt. I'll be sitting at a table at the corner and reading a newspaper. 2. This time tomorrow I'll be having dinner at one of the New York's finest restaurants.

- The Future Continuous is used to talk about what we believe or guess is happening at the moment of speaking (1) and (2) or will be happening at a particular time in the future (3):

Examples: 1. Don't call him now, he'll be doing his homework. 2. I don't want to disturb them. Im sure they'll be cleaning their house at the moment. 3. Please, don't come at 9 o'clock. she'll be sleeping at that time.

- We can also use the Future Continuous to talk about things that we expect to happen in the usual course of events (the event is certain and will happen naturally):

Examples: 1. I will be seeing Ann tomorrow at the office. (we work together) 2. We will be meeting Mike at the festival this weekend.

-The Future Continuous is also used for predictions or expected trends in the future:

Example: By 2030, most people in Africa will be living in urban areas.

- Sometimes we can use the Future Continuous to make polite enquiries, when we wish to know what somebody's plans are:

Examples: 1. Will you be coming with me to the concert tonight? 2. Will you be going to the next meeting in December?

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